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Jehovah's Witnesses and the Deity of Christ

Sam Shamoun


The aim of this paper is to focus on several key objections presented by Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs for short) against the Deity of the Lord Jesus Christ. JWs believe that even though the NT teaches that Jesus is a god, he is not God in the same sense that the Father is.

Some of the objections we will be dealing with include the JWs’ denial that Christ is the Creator. Their belief is that the Father is the Creator, whereas Christ is the Agent or instrumental cause of creation. We will examine whether the Holy Bible teaches that Christ is eternal and has the same omni-attributes of God, or does it teach (as JWs assert) that Christ is the first of God’s creatures. We will also try and discover whether the Lord Jesus is a savior in the same sense that Jehovah is, and if whether the JW claim that the Lord Jesus is an angelic creature is exegetically sound.

The biblical citations will be taken from the New Word Translation (NWT), unless stated otherwise.

Who is the Agent / Instrumental Cause of Creation?

Jehovah God

The Holy Scriptures state that Jehovah God alone created the heavens and the earth, and is the One sustaining them:

"You are Jehovah alone; you yourself have made the heavens, [even] the heaven of the heavens, and all their army, the earth and all that is upon it, the seas and all that is in them; and you are preserving all of them alive; and the army of heavens are bowing down to you." Nehemiah 9:6

"He is saying to the sun that it should not shine forth. And around the stars he puts a seal, Stretching out the heavens BY HIMSELF. And treading upon the high waves of the sea; Making the Ash constellations, the Ke'sil constellation, And the Ki'mah constellation and the interior rooms of the South;" " Job 9:7-9

"For all the gods of the peoples are idols; But Jehovah made the heavens." Psalm 96:5 ASV

"Let them praise the name of Jehovah; For he himself commanded, and they were created. And he keeps them standing forever, to time indefinite. A regulation he has given, and it will not pass away." Psalm 148:5-6

"This is what Jehovah has said, your Repurchaser and the Former of you from the belly; 'I, Jehovah, am doing everything, stretching out the heavens BY MYSELF, laying out the earth. Who was with me?'" Isaiah 44:24

"The God that made the world and all the things in it, being, as this One is, Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in handmade temples, neither is he attended by human hands as if he needed anything, because he himself gives to all [persons] life and breath and all things. And he made out of one [man] every nation of men, to dwell upon the entire surface of the earth, and he decreed the appointed times and the set limits of the dwelling of [men], for them to seek God, if they might grope for him and really find him, although, in fact, he is not far off from each one of us. For BY (en) him we have life and move and exist, even as certain ones of the poets among YOU have said, 'For we are also his progeny.'" Acts 17:24-28

"and should make see how the sacred secret is administered which has from the indefinite past been hidden in God, who created all things." Ephesians 3:9

"Of course every house is constructed by someone, but he that constructed all things is God." Hebrews 3:4

"Worthy are You, our Lord and our God, to receive glory and honor and power; for You created all things, and because of Your will they existed, and were created." Revelation 4:11 NASB

The Holy Scriptures further teach that God is the instrumental cause of all things:

"O the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways! 'For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been his counselor?' 'Or who has given a gift to him that he might be repaid?' For from him and through (di') him and to (eis) him are all things. To him be glory for ever. Amen." Romans 11:33-36 RSV

"For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through (di') whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings." Hebrews 2:10 NASB

The preceding passages demonstrate that God is the sole creator and sustainer of all things. These divine functions are some of things that distinguish the true God from the rest of the so-called gods. This is further reflected in the Jewish apocryphal writings:

"O sovereign Lord, didst thou not speak at the beginning when thou didst form the earth -- and that without help -- and didst command the dust and it gave thee Adam, a lifeless body? Yet he was the workmanship of thy hands, and thou didst breathe into him the breath of life, and he was made alive in thy presence." 4 Ezra 3:4-5 RSV

"then I planned these things, and they were made THROUGH ME AND NOT THROUGH ANOTHER, just as the end shall come through me and not through another." 4 Ezra 6:6 RSV

"This name was very appropriately bestowed upon him by our first ancestors, in order to signify that He THROUGH whom all things are endowed with life and come into being, is necessarily the ruler and lord of the Universe. Set all mankind an example of magnanimity by releasing those who are held in bondage." Letter of Aristeas 16 RSV

"Hear, O hear me, God of my father, God of the inheritance of Israel, Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of the waters, King of all thy creation, hear my prayer! Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covenant, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. And cause thy whole nation and every tribe to know and understand that thou art God, the God of all power and might, and that there is no other who protects the people of Israel but thou alone!" Judith 9:12-14 RSV

Jesus Christ

The Holy Bible states that Christ created the heavens and the earth, being both the instrumental and final cause of all creation. Christ is also the pictured as the very sustainer of all things:

"All things came into existence through (di') him, and apart from him not even one thing came into existence. What has come into existence by means of him (en autou) was life, and the life was the light of men… He was in the world, and the world came into existence through (di') him, but the world did not know him." John 1:3-4, 10

"there is actually to us one God the Father, out of whom all things are, and we FOR (eis) him; and there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, THROUGH (di') whom all things are, and we THROUGH (di') him." 1 Corinthians 8:6

"for IN him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or authorities--all things were created THROUGH (di') him and FOR (eis) him. He is before all things, and IN (en) him all things hold together." Colossians 1:16-17 RSV

"has at the end of these days spoken to us by means of a Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and THROUGH (di') whom he made the system of things. He is the reflection of [his] glory and the exact representation of his very being, and he sustains all things by the word of his power…" Hebrews 1:2-3a

"And: 'YOU at [the] beginning, O Lord, LAID THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE EARTH ITSELF, and the heavens are [the] works OF YOUR HANDS. They themselves will perish, but you yourself remain continually; and just like an outer garment they will all grow old, and you will wrap them up just as a cloak, as an outer garment; and they will be changed, but you are the same, and your years will never run out.'" Hebrews 1:10-12

The last passage is quite astonishing since the inspired author applies Psalm 102:25-27 to the Son. The inspired author has God praising and addressing his own beloved Son as Jehovah God and as the very Creator of the heavens and the earth!

In light of the foregoing, we can safely say that the inspired scriptures do not posit two instrumental, final and sustainers of creation, one of whom is God and the other a mere creature. Rather, the scriptures ascribe to Jesus functions and abilities that clearly belong to God alone. The Holy Bible is presenting Jesus Christ as Jehovah God, while at the same time showing that he is not the Father or the Holy Spirit. Note the following syllogism:

1. God alone is the instrumental cause and sustainer of all creation. 

2. Jesus is the instrumental cause and sustainer of all creation. 

3. Jesus is therefore God.

In order to deny the conclusion, one must deny one or both of the premises. A JW can try to do so by agreeing that there are, in fact, two distinct instrumental causes: namely God Almighty and his vastly inferior creature, Jesus Christ. Yet, positing such an explanation would only lead to a denial of the explicit testimony of the scriptures that Jehovah alone is responsible for all aspects of the creation of the cosmos. The JWs are in a dilemma since they do not deny premise # 2; they agree that the Holy Bible names Jesus as the instrumental cause of creation. Instead, they argue that God is not alone in being the instrumental cause of all things. In fact, they suggest that God is the 'architect' of creation, while the Son is the 'master builder.' They understand God to be the instrumental cause only in the sense that he decreed that his Son should assist him. For them, the Son is the 'hands-on' builder of the universe, and Jehovah is only instrumental in creating his own Son. But, as we have seen in the quoted Scriptures above, such a view does not comport with inspired Scripture.

A JW can also deny premise #1 by saying that God does not sustain creation by himself, but is helped by his greatly inferior and vastly less powerful Son. As noted above, this implies that a finite creature is just as much responsible for sustaining all creation as God is. Therefore, creation is indebted not only to the Creator, but to an inferior creature as well!

This leads us to the following questions. Why would an all-powerful God share (or need to share) his work of creating the cosmos with a creature in the first place? In what way can a creature assist God in creating and sustaining the universe, seeing that God is the source of all authority and power? In other words, why would God include (or need) a creature to assist him in the work of creating the cosmos when it is God who has granted this creature the power and the ability to create? Did God grant this finite creature the ability to assist him in creating the cosmos so that the other creatures could give him the praises and glory that God alone deserves? If so, then how does one reconcile this with the biblical statements that God does not share his praise and glory with another?

"I am Jehovah. That is my name; and to no one else shall I give my own glory, neither praise to graven images." Isaiah 42:8

"I shall say to the north, 'Give up!' and to the south, 'Do not keep back. Bring my sons from far off, and my daughters from the extremity of the earth, everyone that is called by name and that I have created FOR MY OWN GLORY, that I have formed, yes, that I have made.'" Isaiah 43:6-7

"The wild beast of the field will glorify me, the jackals and the ostriches; because I shall have given water even in the wilderness, rivers in the desert, to cause my people, my chosen one, to drink, the people whom I have formed FOR MYSELF, that they should recount THE PRAISE OF ME." Isaiah 43:20-21

"For my own sake, for my own sake I shall act, for how could one let oneself be profaned? And to no one else shall I give my own glory. Listen to me, O Jacob, and you Israel my called one. I am the same One. I am the first. Moreover, I am the last." Isaiah 48:11-12

A JW may interject here and claim that these passages do not exclude giving praise to others like Jesus, but prohibits the praise of idols, i.e. to the false gods of the nations (specifically the Babylonian gods). This interpretation cannot be sustained for two reasons. First, this means that Jehovah's statement in Isaiah 43:6-7,20-21 does not really mean what it says. It ONLY means that God didn't create them to praise and glorify the false gods of the nations! They can praise other beings like Christ. Obviously, such an interpretation is nonsensical since the Holy Bible states that God's chosen people belong to God alone and cannot praise any creature. In fact, the Scriptures teach that creatures like the angels actually serve God's elect, not the other way around (more on this later). Cf. Exodus 19:3-6; Deuteronomy 7:1-6; 14:1-2; Hebrews 1:7, 14; Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9

Second, the following scriptures show that there are real spirits behind these idols:

"Let all those serving any carved image be ashamed, Those who are making their boast in valueless gods. Bow down to him, all YOU gods." Psalm 97:7

Here is how the Septuagint (LXX) renders this verse:

Let all that worship graven images be ashamed, who boast of their idols; worship him, all ye his angels.

The 1984 New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures with References cross-references this passage with the following citations:

"And I must pass through the land of Egypt on this night and strike every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from man to beast; and on all the gods of Egypt I shall execute judgments. I am Jehovah." Exodus 12:12

"Now I do know that Jehovah is greater than all [other] gods by reason of this affair in which they acted presumptuously against them." Exodus 18:11

The NWT translator's cross-references provide indirect evidence that the gods of the Egyptians were actually angels, or more specifically fallen angels. This is reiterated elsewhere:

"So they should no longer sacrifice to the goat-shaped DEMONS with which they are having immoral intercourse. This will serve as a statute to time indefinite for YOU, throughout YOUR generations." Leviticus 17:7

"They began inciting him to jealousy with strange gods; With detestable things they kept offending him. They went sacrificing TO DEMONS, not God, Gods whom they had not known, New ones who recently came in, With whom YOUR forefathers were not acquainted." Deuteronomy 32:16-17

And he proceeded to put in office for himself priests for the high places and for the goat-shaped DEMONS and for the calves that he had made. 2 Chronicles 11:15

"And now YOU men are thinking of holding YOUR own against the kingdom of Jehovah in the hand of the sons of David, when YOU are a large crowd and there are with YOU the golden calves that Jero-bo'am made for YOU as gods. Have you not driven out Jehovah's priests, the sons of Aaron, and the Levites, and do YOU not keep making priests for yourselves like the peoples of the lands? As for anyone that came and filled his hand with power by means of a young bull and seven rams, he became a priest of what are NO gods."2 Chronicles 13:8-9

"They kept serving their idols, And these came to be a snare to them. And they would sacrifice their sons And their daughters TO DEMONS." Psalm 106:36-37

The gods of the nations whom the Israelites worshiped were actually demons, creatures that were not gods at all.

"For Jehovah is great and very much to be praised. He is fear-inspiring above all [other] gods. For all the gods of the peoples are valueless gods. But as for Jehovah he has made the very heavens." Psalm 96:4-5

Again, note how the LXX renders this passage:

"For the Lord is great, and greatly to be praised: he is terrible above all gods. For all the gods of the heathen ARE DEVILS: but the Lord made the heavens."

Continuing further,

"'But the prince of the royal realm of Persia was standing in opposition to me for twenty-one days, and look! Micha-el one of the foremost princes, came to help me; and, I, for my part, remained there beside the kings of Persia'… So he went on to say: 'Do you really know why I have come to you? And now I shall go back to fight with the prince of Persia. When I am going forth, look! Also the prince of Greece is coming. However, I shall tell you the things noted down in the writing of truth, and there is no one holding strongly with me in these [things] but Micha-el, the prince of YOU people.'" Daniel 10:13, 20-21

According to Daniel, there are spirits that govern the kingdoms and authorities of the world. It is evident from these passages that the nations' worship of the false gods was actually directed towards the demonic spirits that were associated with these pagan kingdoms and their idols.

The other cross-reference given by the NTW is Psalm 86:8. We include 9-10 as well:

"There is none like you among the gods, O Jehovah, Neither are there any works like yours. All the nations whom you have made will themselves come, And they will bow down before you, O Jehovah, And will give glory to your name. For you are great and are doing wondrous things. Your are God, you alone."

The NWT translation's footnote to verse 8 reads:

"Among the gods." Heb., va.'elohim'; Gr., the-ois; Lat., di'is; T, "lofty angels."

The NWT cross-references this with Psalm 89:6. Again, verse 7 is included for context:

"For who in the skies can be compared to Jehovah? Who can resemble Jehovah among the sons of God? God is to be held in awe among the intimate group of holy ones; He is grand and fear-inspiring over all who are round about him."

The preceding citations clearly connect angels with the gods/idols of the peoples.

Here is the final line of evidence where idols and angels are associated:

"The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The loaf which we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ? Because there is one loaf, we, although many, are one body, for we are all partaking of that one loaf. LOOK at that which is Israel in a fleshly way: Are not those who eat sacrifices sharers with the altar? What, then, am I to say? That what is sacrificed to an idol is anything, or that an idol is anything? No; but I say that the things which the nations sacrifice they sacrifice TO DEMONS, and not to God; and I do not want YOU to become sharers WITH DEMONS. YOU cannot be drinking the cup of Jehovah and the cup OF DEMONS; YOU cannot be partaking of the 'table of Jehovah' and the table OF DEMONS." 1 Corinthians 10:16-21

"Do not become unevenly yoked with unbelievers. For what fellowship do righteousness and lawlessness have? Or what sharing does light have with darkness? Further, what harmony is there between Christ and Be'li-al? Or what portion does a faithful person have with an unbeliever? And what agreement does God's temple have with idols? For we are a temple of a living God; just as God said: 'I shall reside among them and walk among [them], and I shall be their God, and they will be my people.'" 2 Corinthians 6:14-16

Just as the temple and the sacrifices are associated with God and Christ, so too are idols and pagan sacrifices associated with Belial/Satan and the demons. Since demons are simply fallen angels, this once again connects angels with the false gods/idols of the nations. Cf. 1 Corinthians 6:3; 2 Corinthians 12:7; Revelation 12:7

The foregoing citations demonstrate beyond any reasonable doubt that there are angelic spirits behind the gods/idols of the pagans. Eminent NT scholar Richard Bauckham lends further support regarding the idol being equated with the god it represented:

"en kosmw shows that eidwlon here does not mean the physical object as such (which, of course, undeniably exists) but the pagan god Jews frequently regarded as the idol." ("Paul's Christology of Divine Identity," p. 15, 38n).

This means that God not only refuses to share his praise and glory with these idols, but also with the very angelic spirits/gods associated with them.

But if the JW position regarding the nature of Christ is to be maintained, God does in fact give his praise to an angelic creature. In fact, God went so far as to include this finite creature in creating and sustaining the universe, something that Jehovah is said to have performed by himself!

A JW may further claim that Jesus' role in creation doesn't mean that Christ is worthy of the praise and worship due to God alone. This response would fail to answer our original question, namely, what was God's purpose in using Jesus to create the cosmos in the first place? We will have more to say about the worship given to Christ a little later in the paper.

To conclude this particular section, the biblical data regarding Jesus' role in creation conclusively demonstrates that he is not an inferior creature or some lesser deity. He is, instead, the very eternal Creator of the universe.

Is Jesus created or is He eternal?

There are several passages which show that Christ is an eternal being. By this we do not mean that Jesus' humanity was eternal, but that his being, his personhood, is eternal. In his first epistle, the Apostle John wrote:

"The life appeared, we have seen it and testify to it, and we proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and has appeared to us." 1 John 1:2

John calls the Lord Jesus THE eternal life that was with the Father. It is quite obvious that the One who is called eternal life, which implies that this One is the very source of life, cannot himself be created. Otherwise we would have to conclude that eternal life itself was created, which obviously makes no sense.

Later on John describes the true God as eternal life:

"We know also that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true. And we are IN him who is true- even IN his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life." 1 John 5:20

John's statement shows that the One who is eternal life is also the true God. In the context, the Lord Jesus Christ is the nearest antecedent of "He is" (houtos). This point, along with 1 John 1:2, makes it apparent that John is calling the Lord Jesus the true God.

The JW may disagree and claim that John has already identified someone else as the One who is true, namely God. Furthermore, the Lord Jesus in John 17:3 called the Father the only true God. This seems to strengthens the JW claim that the referent in 1 John 5:20 is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus.

The JW response doesn't solve the dilemma for them, but only strengthens the Trinitarian argument for two reasons. First, the JW interpretation leaves us with two individuals who are called eternal life, the Father and the Son. This would only prove that the Lord Jesus is equal to the Father in essence and nature, having a characteristic that only God intrinsically possesses. That is unless, of course, the JWs want to claim that even creatures can be called eternal life!

This leads us to our second point. Since eternal life is an intrinsic part of God's being, whoever is called eternal life would also be the true God. Note the following:

1. Only the True God is eternal life. 

2. Jesus is eternal life. 

3. Jesus is therefore the True God.

In order to deny this a JW must show that creatures can be called eternal life in the same sense that the true God is. The JWs can't use their prior assumption that Jesus is a creature to argue that creatures can be called eternal life, since this would entail circular reasoning.

Additional support demonstrating that Christ is an eternal being can be found in the last book of the Holy Bible:

"And they sang a new song, saying: 'You are worthy to take the scroll and open its seals, because you were slaughtered and with your blood you bought persons for God out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation, and you made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God, and they are to rule as kings over the earth.' And I saw, and I heard a voice of many angels around the throne and the living creatures and the elders, and the number of them was myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands, saying with a loud voice: 'The Lamb that was slaughtered is worthy to receive the power and riches and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and blessing.' And EVERY CREATURE that is in heaven and on earth and underneath the earth and on the sea, and all the things in them, I heard saying: 'To the One sitting on the throne AND TO THE LAMB be the blessing and the honor and the glory and the might forever and ever.' And the four living creatures went saying: 'Amen!' and the elders fell down and worshiped." Revelation 5:9-14

John sees EVERY creature worshiping not just God, but also the Lord Jesus. Jesus not only receives the worship due to God, but also is distinct from the entire class of creation. To put it rather simply, Christ is not a creature but the Creator!

The NT condemns the praise and worship of the creation:

"For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped (esbastheesan) and served (elatreusan) the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen." Romans 1:25 NASB

Praises and doxologies must be directed to the only God:

"Now to the King of eternity, incorruptible, invisible, [the] only God be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen." 1 Timothy 1:17

Yet, the NT authors didn't hesitate to offer praises and doxologies to the Lord Jesus:

"I solemnly charge you before God and Christ Jesus, who is destined to JUDGE the living and the dead, and by HIS MANIFESTATION and HIS KINGDOM… From this time on there is reserved for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord the righteous JUDGE, will give me as a reward in that day, yet not only to me, but also to all those who have loved HIS manifestation… The Lord will deliver me from every wicked work and will save [me] for HIS heavenly KINGDOM. To him be the glory forever and ever. Amen." 2 Timothy 4:1, 8, 18

"but grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To Him be the glory, both now and to the day of eternity. Amen." 2 Peter 3:18 NASB

"and from Jesus Christ, 'the Faithful witness,' and 'the firstborn from the dead,' and 'the Ruler of the kings of the earth.' To him that loves us and that loosed us from our sins by means of his own blood- and he made us to be a kingdom, priests to his God and Father- yes, to him, be the glory and the might forever. Amen." Revelation 1:5-6

The worship given to the Lord Jesus conclusively shows that the NT writers didn't view Christ as a mere creature, but viewed him as the God of all creation. It is no wonder that we find Jesus receiving the worship of EVERY creature. In the words of the Apostolic father Polycarp:

"Therefore prepare for action and serve God in fear" and truth, leaving behind the empty and meaningless talk and the error of the crowd, and "believing in him who raised" our Lord Jesus Christ "from the dead and gave him glory" and a throne at his right hand; to whom all things in heaven and on earth were subjected, WHOM EVERY BREATHING CREATURE SERVES (latreuei), who is coming as "Judge of the living and the dead," for whose blood God will hold responsible those who disobey him…" (The Apostolic Fathers, Greek Texts And English Translations, edited and revised by Michael W. Holmes [Baker Books, Grand Rapids, MI 1999], pp. 207, 209; bold and capital emphasis ours).

Our final line of evidence supporting Christ's eternal nature is indirectly derived from the JW claim that the Lord Jesus is the wisdom spoken of in Proverbs 8:22-36. The JWs hope to demonstrate through this that Jesus is created since they claim that Proverbs 8:22 speaks of God creating or begetting wisdom. The JW reasoning can best be illustrated by the following:

1. God created wisdom. 

2. Jesus is called wisdom. 

3. Jesus is therefore created.

A Trinitarian can actually use the JW's own hermeneutic to show that Jesus is eternal. For instance, the only place where Jesus is explicitly called God's wisdom is in 1 Corinthians 1:24:

"however, to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the POWER of God and the WISDOM of God."

Paul not only calls Jesus the wisdom of God, but also calls him God's power. The Watch Tower in their publications cite the preceding passage in defense of their claim that Jesus is the wisdom of Proverbs 8:22-36. For instance, in the August 15th, 1975 edition, p. 511 of Questions from Readers? Does the description of "Wisdom" in Proverbs 8:22-31 actually apply to Jesus, the Son of God?, the Watch Tower writes:

… It is understandable that the Son of God could be depicted as created "Wisdom." Through him Jehovah's wise purpose, including the role of the Messiah whom the Jews were long awaiting, was made manifest. The apostle Paul said about Jesus: "Carefully concealed in him are all the treasures of wisdom and of knowledge." (Col. 2:3) While King Solomon was renowned for his God-given wisdom, Jesus was "something more than Solomon." (1 Ki. 4:30-34; Matt. 12:42) Those who accepted Jesus Christ and had faith in him realized that he was "the power of God and the wisdom of God."-1 Cor. 1:24, 30.

JW Apologist Greg Stafford, in the second edition of his book, Jehovah's Witnesses Defended: An Answer to Scholars and Critics (Elihu Books), page 231, Figure 4.2, also uses 1Cor. 1:24. The title is Parallels Between "Wisdom" in the OT and Christ in the NT. Stafford notes in Parallel 6, "Christ is actually called "wisdom" outside of Prov. 8------See 1Co. 1:24, 30; compare Mt. 23:34 with Luke 11:49, where Jesus identifies himself as Wisdom."

Another JW apologist named Hector Heinz writes:

Reply: It is the Bible that calls Jesus "the firstborn of all creation," "the beginning of God's creation," the "only-begotten Son" and links Jesus to the "created" Wisdom of Proverbs (Col 1:15; Rev 3:14; Jn 3:16; Prov 8:22-30 cf. Lu 11:47/1Cor 1:24 RSV). (

JWs are not the only modern day Arians appealing to 1Cor. 1:24. The following Arian states:

In the same manner, Jesus has inserted a section in the middle of a discourse on wisdom given in Proverbs 8 which explains the time and manner of his birth as God's son. Also read 1 Corinthians 1:24 which teaches us that Jesus is the power and wisdom of God, showing that all of Proverbs 8 can be applied to Jesus: (

Using the methodology employed by the JWs in linking Christ with Proverbs 8, we can show that the Lord Jesus is actually eternal. The Apostle Paul, in his epistle to the Romans, writes:

"For his invisible [qualities] are clearly seen from the world's creation onward, because they are perceived by the things made, even his ETERNAL POWER and Godship, so that they are inexcusable." Romans 1:20

Again, note the following syllogism:

1. God's power is eternal. 

2. Jesus is God's power. 

3. Jesus is therefore eternal.

The preceding passages conclusively demonstrate that Christ isn't merely a creature, but the eternal God who willingly shared in our humanity in order to redeem his people from their sins.

Is Jesus Omnipresent like his Father?

It is a curious thing that the Watchtower Society not only denies Christ's omnipresence, but also denies that the Father is omnipresent. They believe that the Father has a spirit body which limits him to a specific location, namely heaven. It is through his active force, i.e. his "holy spirit", that God is able to know and discern all things.

The following passages show that not only is the Father omnipresent, but the Son is also:


"And, on the other hand, as I live, all the earth will be filled with the glory of Jehovah." Numbers 14:21

"Where can I from your spirit, And where can I flee from your face? If I should ascend to heaven, there you would be; And if I should spread out my couch in She'ol, look! you [would be there]. Were I to take the wings of the dawn, That I might reside in the most remote sea, There, also, your own hand would lead me And your right hand would lay hold of me. And were I to say: 'Surely darkness itself will hastily seize me!' Then night would be light about me. Even the darkness itself would not prove to be too dark for you, But night itself would shine just as the day does; The darkness might just as well be the light." Psalm 139:7-12

"'Am I a God nearby,' is the utterance of Jehovah, 'and not a God far away? Or can any man be concealed n places of concealment and I myself not see him?' is the utterance of Jehovah. 'Is it not the heavens and earth that I myself actually fill?'" Jeremiah 23:23-24

"I saw the Lord where he had taken his stand by the altar, and he said 'Strike the pillar-head and let the ceiling shake, knock them off on the heads of them all, and the last of them I will kill with the sword; they shall not have a fugitive run away nor a refugee get to safety. If they break into the world of the dead, from there my hand shall take them; and if they go up in the sky, from there I will bring them down; and if they hide in the top of Carmel, from there will I hunt them out and take them; and if they conceal themselves away from my eyes on the floor of the sea, from there I will commission the snake and have it bite them; and if they go into foreign slavery under their enemies, from there I will commission the sword and have it kill them; and I will fasten my eyes on them for the mischief and not for good.'" Amos 9:1-4 Bible in Living English (BLE)

"But when everything has been subjected to him, then the Son himself too will be subjected to him who subjected everything to him, in order that God may be everything IN everything." 1 Corinthians 15:28 BLE

"and to know this love that surpasses knowledge-that you may be filled to the measure of all the fullness of God." Ephesians 3:19

"one God and Father of all [persons], who is over all and THROUGH (dia) all and IN (en) all." Ephesians 4:6

Jesus Christ

"… and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Matthew 28:20 NASB

"On that day you will realize that I am IN MY FATHER, and you are IN ME AND I AM IN YOU. Whoever has my commands and obeys them, he is the one who loves me. He who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him AND SHOW MYSELF TO HIM." John 14:20-21 NIV

"In answer Jesus said to him: 'If anyone loves me, he will observe my word, and my Father will love him, and WE shall come to him and make OUR abode with him.'" John 14:23

"I IN THEM and you in me. May they be brought to complete unity to let the world know that you sent me and have loved them as you have loved me… I have made you known to them, and will continue to make you known in order that the love you have for me may be in them AND THAT I MYSELF MAY BE IN THEM." John 17:23,26 NIV

"You, however, are controlled not by the sinful nature, but by the Spirit, if the Spirit OF GOD lives IN you. And if anyone does not have the Spirit OF CHRIST, he does not belong to Christ. BUT IF CHRIST IS IN YOU, your body is dead because of sin, yet your spirit is alive because of righteousness." Romans 8:9-10 NIV

"Examine yourselves to see whether you are in the faith; test yourselves. Do you not realize THAT CHRIST JESUS IS IN YOU-unless of course, you fail the test." 2 Corinthians 13:5 NIV

"I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, BUT CHRIST LIVES IN ME. The life I live in the body I live by faith in the Son of God who loved me and gave himself for me." Galatians 2:20

"which is his body, the fullness of him who fills up all things IN ALL." Ephesians 1:23

"to have Christ DWELL through [YOUR] faith IN YOUR HEARTS with love; that YOU may be rooted and established on the foundation," Ephesians 3:17

"Now each one of us undeserved kindness was given according to how the Christ measured out the free gift… The very one that descended is also the one that ascended that he might give fullness to all things." Ephesians 4:7,10

"to them God has chosen to make known among the Gentiles the glorious riches of this mystery, which is CHRIST IN YOU, the hope of glory." Colossians 1:27 NIV

"where there is no such thing as Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, alien, Scythian, slave, freeman, but Christ is everything and IN EVERYBODY." Colossians 3:11 BLE

It is quite evident that both the Father and the Son share the same divine attribute of omnipresence, demonstrating once again that the Son is equal to the Father in essence and nature.

Is Jesus the same kind of Savior that Jehovah is?

The Holy Bible emphatically teaches that Jehovah is our only savior:

"'You are my witnesses,' is the utterance of Jehovah, 'even my servant whom I have chosen, in order that YOU may know and have faith that I am the same One. Before me there was no God formed, and after me there continued to be none. I-I am Jehovah, and besides me there is no savior.'" Isaiah 43:10-11

"Declare and set forth {your case;} Indeed, let them consult together. Who has announced this from of old? Who has long since declared it? Is it not I, the LORD? And there is no other God besides Me, A righteous God and a Savior; There is none except Me. Turn to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth; For I am God, and there is no other. I have sworn by Myself, The word has gone forth from My mouth in righteousness And will not turn back, That to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear {allegiance.} They will say of Me, 'Only in the LORD are righteousness and strength.' Men will come to Him, And all who were angry at Him will be put to shame. In the LORD all the offspring of Israel Will be justified and will glory." Isaiah 45:21-25 NASB

"'But I am Jehovah your God from the land of Egypt, and there was no God except me that you used to know; and there was no savior but I.'" Hosea 13:4

Trinitarians claim that this implies that Jesus is Jehovah since he is consistently called the Savior of all true believers throughout the NT. JWs try to counter this by pointing to passages where God raised up saviors for Israel:

"And when the children of Israel cried unto Jehovah, Jehovah raised up a saviour to the children of Israel, who saved them, even Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother." Judges 3:9,15 ASV

"Jehovah raised them up a saviour, Ehud the son of Gera" Judges 3:15 ASV

"And saviors will certainly come up onto Mount Zion, in order to judge the mountainous region of E'sau; and the kingship must become Jehovah's." Obadiah 1:21

"Therefore thou deliveredst them into the hand of their adversaries, who distressed them: and in the time of their trouble, when they cried unto thee, thou heardest from heaven; and according to thy manifold mercies thou gavest them saviours who saved them out of the hand of their adversaries." Nehemiah 9:27

JWs are quick to point out that these individuals were instruments which God used to deliver his people. Hence, in the ultimate sense God is truly the only savior. Yet, this doesn't preclude God from using individuals to accomplish his work of salvation. The JWs would posit Jesus in a category similar to an Othniel (albeit in a far greater way), namely, that Christ is the instrument that God sovereignly used to accomplish redemption.

The JWs are guilty of a false analogy here since Jesus' role isn't simply that of an instrument which God used, much like the judges. Jesus is a savior in the same exact sense that Jehovah is said to be. Note for instance the parallels between them:


"Jehovah is my strength and song, And he is become my salvation: This is my God, and I will praise him; My father's God, and I will exalt him." Exodus 15:2 ASV- C.f. Psalm 118:14,21

"Salvation belongs to Jehovah. Your blessing is upon your people. Se'lah." Psalm 3:8

"Bless the LORD, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits, who forgives all your iniquity, who heals all your diseases," Psalm 103:2-3 RSV

"O Israel, hope in the LORD! For with the LORD there is steadfast love, and with him is plenteous redemption. And he will redeem Israel from all his iniquities." Psalm 130:7-8 RSV

"I, I am He who blots out your transgressions for my own sake, and I will not remember your sins." Isaiah 43:25 RSV

"… 'And Jehovah got to see, and it was bad in his eyes that there was no justice. And when he saw THAT THERE WAS NO MAN, he began to show himself astonished that there was no one interposing. And his arm proceeded to save for him, and his OWN righteousness was the thing that supported. Then he put on righteousness as a coat of mail, and the helmet of salvation upon his head. Furthermore, he put on the garments of vengeance as raiment and enwrapped himself with zeal as if a sleeveless coat. In accordance with the dealings he will reward correspondingly, rage to his adversaries, due treatment to his enemies. To the islands he will recompense due treatment. And from the sunset they will begin to fear the name of Jehovah, and from the rising of the sun the glory of him, for he will come in like a distressing river, which the very spirit of Jehovah has driven along. And to Zion the Repurchaser will certainly come, and to those turning from transgression in Jacob, is the utterance of Jehovah. 'And as for me, this is my covenant with them,' Jehovah has said. 'My spirit that is upon you and my words that I have put in your mouth- they will not be removed from your mouth or from the mouth of your offspring or from the mouth of the offspring of your offspring,' Jehovah has said, 'from now on even to time indefinite.'" Isaiah 59:15b-21

"Who is this one coming from E'dom, the one with garments of glowing colors from Boz'rah, this one who is honorable in his clothing, marching in the abundance of his power? 'I, the One speaking in righteousness, the One abounding [in power] to save.' Why is it that your clothing is red, and your garments are like those of one treading in the winepress? 'The wine I have trodden BY MYSELF, while THERE WAS NO MAN WITH ME from the peoples. And I kept treading them in my anger, and I kept tramping them down in my rage. And their spurting blood kept spattering upon my garments and all my clothing I have polluted. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the very year of my repurchased ones has come. And I kept looking, BUT THERE WAS NO HELPER; and I began to show myself astonished, BUT THERE WAS NO ONE OFFERING SUPPORT. So my arm furnished me salvation, and my rage was what supported me. And I kept stamping down peoples in my anger, and I proceeded to make them drunk with my rage and to bring down to the earth spurting blood.'" Isaiah 63:1-6

According to these last two passages God had to work out salvation by himself since there was no one, no man, qualified to help him.

"They shall not defile themselves any more with their idols and their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions; but I will save them from all the backslidings in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them; and they shall be MY PEOPLE, and I will be their God." Ezekiel 37:23 RSV

"But as for me, with the voice of thanksgiving I will sacrifice to you. What I have vowed I will pay. Salvation belongs to Jehovah." Jonah 2:9

"For to this end we toil and strive, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of those who believe." 1 Timothy 4:10 RSV


"She will give birth to a son, and you must call his name Jesus, for he will save HIS PEOPLE from their sins." Matthew 1:21

"And when Jesus saw their faith he said to the paralytic: 'Child, your sins are forgiven.' Now there were some of the scribes there, sitting and reasoning in their hearts, 'Why is this man talking in this manner? He is blaspheming. Who can forgive sins except one, God?'… 'But in order for YOU men to know that the Son of man has authority to forgive sins upon the earth,' - he said to the paralytic: 'I say to you, Get up, pick up your cot, and go to your home.' At that he did get up, and immediately picked up his cot and walked out in front of them all, so that they were all simply carried away, and they glorified God, saying: 'We never saw the like of it.' Mark 2:5-7, 10-12

Jesus both heals and forgives, the very things the OT says Jehovah does.

"The next day he beheld Jesus coming toward him, and he said: 'See, the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world!'" John 1:29

"For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him. Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because he has not believed in the name of God's one and only Son." John 3:16-18 NIV

"and they began to say to the woman: 'We do not believe any longer on account of your talk; for we have heard for ourselves and we know that this man is for a certainty THE SAVIOR OF THE WORLD.'" John 4:42

"I am the living bread that came down from heaven; if anyone eats of this bread he will live forever; and, for a fact, the bread that I shall give is MY FLESH in behalf of the life of the world." John 6:51

"And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved." Acts 4:12

This passage is quite interesting since the Holy Bible states that it is Jehovah's name which saves all true believers. Cf. Joel 2:32; Acts 2:21

"Take heed therefore to yourselves, and to all the flock, wherein the Holy Spirit has set you as overseers, to shepherd the assembly of God, which he has purchased with the blood of his own." Acts 20:28 The Darby Translation

"But by His doing you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification, and redemption," 1 Corinthians 1:30 RSV

"For our citizenship is in heaven, from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; who will transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the body of His glory, by the exertion of the power that He has even to subject all things to Himself." Philippians 3:20-21 NASB

"and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, Jesus who delivers us from the wrath to come." 1 Thessalonians 1:10 RSV

"Faithful and deserving of full acceptance is the saying that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners. Of these I am foremost." 1 Timothy 1:15

"while we look forward to that wonderful event when the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ, will be revealed. He gave HIS LIFE to free us from every kind of sin, to cleanse us, and to make us HIS VERY OWN PEOPLE, totally committed to doing what is right." Titus 2:13-14 RSV

"and being made perfect he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him." Hebrews 5:9 RSV

"so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him." Hebrews 9:28 RSV

"Simeon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have obtained a faith of equal standing with ours in the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ:" 2 Peter 1:1 RSV

"This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins… And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be THE SAVIOR OF THE WORLD." 1 John 4:9-10, 14 NIV

"And they keep on crying with a loud voice, saying: 'Salvation [we owe] to our God, who is seated on the throne, AND TO THE LAMB.'" Revelation 7:10

"And I saw the heaven opened, and, look1 a white horse. And the one seated upon it is called Faithful and True, and he judges and carries on war in righteousness. His eyes are a fiery flame, and upon his head are many diadems. He has a name written that no one knows but he himself, and he is arrayed with an outer garment sprinkled with blood, and the name he is called is The Word of God. Also, the armies that were in heaven were following him on white horses, and they were clothed in white, clean, fine linen. And out of his mouth there protrudes a sharp long sword, that he may strike the nations with it, and he will shepherd them with a rod of iron. He treads too the winepress of the anger of the wrath of God the Almighty. And upon his outer garment, even upon his thigh, he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of Lords." Revelation 19:11-16

Here, Jesus is described in the same exact way and does exactly what Isaiah 59:15b-16 and 63:1-6 says Jehovah alone was going to do! Hence, Christ does what no other human or angel can do, namely save his own people from their sins and enact God's own vengeance upon the nations. The Lord Jesus is called the Savior of the world, that very One who takes away the sin of mankind. These things are never said of the other "saviors." The "saviors" in the OT are saviors in the sense of delivering Israel from her captors and adversaries - not in the sense of 'saving from sin.' This is a vital distinction the JWs miss.

Another way in which the NT shows that the Lord Jesus saves in the same way that Jehovah alone saves is the use of the expression "calling on the name." The OT consistently uses this formula in reference to people calling on the name of Jehovah for help and deliverance, as well as in worship. Here a few examples:

"This afflicted one called, and Jehovah himself heard. And out of all his distresses He saved him." Psalm 34:6

"Moses and Aaron were among his priests. And Samuel was among those calling upon his name. They were calling to Jehovah, and he himself kept answering them." Psalm 99:6

"Then I called on the name of the LORD: 'O LORD, save me!'" Psalm 116:4 NIV- Cf. Genesis 4:26; 12:8; 13:4; 21:33; 26:25

In the same way, the first Christians would call on Jesus' name for salvation as well as in worship:

"And he said, 'The God of our fathers appointed you to know his will, to see the Just One and to hear a voice from his mouth; for you will be a witness for him to all men of what you have seen and heard. And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on his name.' When I had returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance and saw him saying to me, 'Make haste and get quickly out of Jerusalem, because they will not accept your testimony about me.' And I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that in every synagogue I imprisoned and beat those who believed IN THEE. And when the blood of Stephen THY witness was shed, I also was standing by and approving, and keeping the garments of those who killed him.' And he said to me, 'Depart; for I will send you far away to the Gentiles.'" Acts 22:14-21 RSV- Cf. 1:6, 21, 24; 7:59-60; 9:13-14, 21

"because, if you confess with your lips that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For man believes with his heart and so is justified, and he confesses with his lips and so is saved. The scripture says, 'No one who believes in him will be put to shame.' For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all and bestows his riches upon all who call upon him. For, 'every one who calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved.'" Romans 10:9-13 RSV

"to the assembly of God that is in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called saints, with all those calling upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in every place -- both theirs and ours:" 1 Corinthians 1:2 Young's Literal Translation- Cf. 16:22-23; 2 Corinthians 12:8-9

The preceding examples conclusively prove that Jesus is a savior in the same sense that Jehovah is. He can personally do what Jehovah alone is able to do and actual does.

Furthermore, Jesus was the One who became man to die on behalf of God's people. It was Jesus who, in his great love, shed his own blood to purify and redeem the children of God. Cf. Matthew 26:28; Mark 10:45; Romans 3:25, 5:8-11; Galatians 2:20; Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:20; Hebrews 1:3, 2:14-17, 9:11-15, 10:14; 1 John 1:7, 2:1-2; Revelation 1:6

If JW theology is correct, then a creature showed more love for us than the Creator! This implies that we owe our salvation not only to God, but also to a finite creature.

Yet, Trinitarian theology (which is based on the Holy Bible) teaches that Jesus is God (namely the Son), and therefore God did love us enough to become man and die on our behalf. God personally shed his own holy blood in order to redeem us from sin and death. God didn't simply send a creature to do what he himself was unwilling to do. Rather, God himself did for his people what no creature could ever possibly do.

Is Jesus an Angel?

Before answering whether Jesus is an angel, a couple of comments are necessary. It must be pointed out that the Hebrew and Greek words for angel simply mean messenger. Whether the words refer to a human or spirit messenger must be determined from the context. For instance, John's disciples are literally called "angels" in Luke 7:24. They were obviously not spirit messengers sent from heaven to deliver a message, but flesh and blood human beings.

This leads us to our second point. One must distinguish between two categories of angels, namely, those who function as angels and those who are angels by nature. An example of the former is John's disciples. Examples of the latter would include Gabriel, Michael, Satan, demons, and the entire heavenly host.

The Holy Bible teaches that those who are angels by nature are servants:

"And the angel said to me, 'Write this: Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb." And he said to me, "These are true words of God." Then I fell down at his feet to worship him, but he said to me, "You must not do that! I am A FELLOW SERVANT (sundoulos) with you and your brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus. Worship God." For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.'" Revelation 19:9-10 RSV

"I John am he who heard and saw these things. And when I heard and saw them, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel who showed them to me; but he said to me, "You must not do that! I am A FELLOW SERVANT (sundoulos) with you and your brethren the prophets, and with those who keep the words of this book. Worship God.'" Revelation 22:8-9 RSV- Cf. Cf. Hebrews 1:7, 14

The JW position regarding Christ is that he is the archangel Michael, which means that Jesus is a servant by nature. To the JWs, Christ doesn't simply function as an angel as the messengers of John did. He IS an actual ontological angel.

In light of the foregoing, note what the apostle Paul wrote:

"Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in THE FORM OF GOD (morphe Theou), did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, TAKING THE FORM OF A SERVANT (morpheen doulou), being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross." Philippians 2:5-8 RSV

Paul states that Christ became a servant when he appeared as a man. This shows that the Lord Jesus wasn't a servant beforehand, which further shows that he wasn't an angel by nature. Clearly, the JW position is unbiblical.

Furthermore, Paul shows that being in the form of God precludes one from being in the form of a servant. That is why Christ (who was and forever remains in the form of God) had to take on the form of a servant. Since angels are servants, meaning that they all have the form of a servant, they cannot be gods in nature. Angels therefore do not exist in the form of Deity or divinity, making them completely unlike the Lord Jesus in that sense.

The next passage provides additional support that Jesus is not an angel:

"For it was not to angels that God subjected the world to come, of which we are speaking. It has been testified somewhere, 'What is man that thou art mindful of him, or the son of man, that thou carest for him? Thou didst make him for a little while lower than the angels, thou hast crowned him with glory and honor, putting everything in subjection under his feet.' Now in putting everything in subjection to him, he left nothing outside his control. As it is, we do not yet see everything in subjection to him. But we see Jesus, who for a little while was made lower than the angels, crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for every one. For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through suffering. For he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified have all one origin. That is why he is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying, 'I will proclaim thy name to my brethren, in the midst of the congregation I will praise thee.' And again, 'I will put my trust in him.' And again, 'Here am I, and the children God has given me." Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same nature, that through death he might destroy him who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong bondage. For surely it is not with angels that he is concerned but with the descendants of Abraham. Therefore he had to be made like his brethren in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make expiation for the sins of the people." Hebrews 2:5-17 RSV

The inspired author claims that God has not subjected the world to come to angels. God has subjected it to man, specifically to man's perfect representative, the Lord Jesus Christ, who became man in order to identify with the humanity he came to redeem. Other passages make it plain that both the present and the future world is subject to Christ's sovereign authority:

"which he exerted in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every title that can be given, not only in the present age but also in the one to come. And God placed all things under his feet and appointed him to be head over everything for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills everything in every way." Ephesians 1:20-23 NIV

"And the seventh angel blew his trumpet. And loud voices occurred in the heaven, saying: 'The kingdom of the world did become the kingdom of our Lord AND OF HIS CHRIST, and HE will rule as their King forever and ever.'" Revelation 11:15

The following syllogism helps to put this all together and shows why Christ cannot be an ontological angel:

1. God has not subjected the world to come to angels. 

2. God has subjected the world to come to Jesus Christ and redeemed humanity. 

3. Jesus therefore is not an angel.

There is simply no way around this.

To conclude this particular section, the Holy Bible teaches that ontological angels are beings created to serve. Jesus only became a servant when he partook of humanity, which means that while in heaven Christ wasn't an angel. Rather, Christ existed in the very form of God, making him fully God in nature. This leads us to our final section.

Who is like Jehovah?

The Holy Scriptures teach that none of the angels are like God:

"There is none like you among the gods, O Jehovah, Neither are there any works like yours. All the nations whom you have made will themselves come, And they will bow down before you, O Jehovah, And will give glory to your name. For you are great and are doing wondrous things. Your are God, you alone." Psalm 86:8-10

"For who in the skies can be compared to Jehovah? Who can RESEMBLE Jehovah among THE SONS OF GOD? God is to be held IN AWE among the intimate group of holy ones; He is grand and fear-inspiring over all who are round about him." Psalm 89:6-7

The most interesting part about this is that the New Testament teaches that Jesus is EXACTLY like God, and perfectly RESEMBLES his Father. He even does the very same kind of works that the Father does:

"Therefore, in answer, Jesus went on to say to them: 'Most truly I say to YOU, The Son cannot do a single thing of his own initiative, but only what he beholds the Father doing. For whatever things that One does, these things the Son does IN LIKE MANNER. For the Father has affection for the Son, and shows him all the things he himself does, and he will show him works greater than these, IN ORDER THAT YOU MAY MARVEL.' John 5:19-20

"He is the reflection of [his] glory and the EXACT REPRESENTATION of his very being, and he sustains all things by the word of his power…" Hebrews 1:3a

These passages provide additional evidence that the Lord Jesus is not a created spirit being like the angels. He is, instead, Jehovah God. At the same time he is distinct from both the Father and the Holy Spirit.

The preceding citations are just some of the many which drove the early Church to formulate the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. The Church's formulation is the most accurate and consistent teaching regarding the explicit biblical witness that the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are distinct from one another and yet all three are God in the same sense and to the same degree.